Guide to Buying Shipping Containers for Sale

Guide to Shipping Containers

Shipping container s have revolutionized the way goods are transported across the world. These large metal boxes, which come in standard sizes, have made it easier and more cost-effective to move goods by sea, land, and air. In this article, we will take a closer look at shipping containers, their history, uses, and the impact they have had on global trade.

History of Shipping Containers

The history of shipping containers dates back to the early 20th century when the need for more efficient ways to transport goods across long distances was increasing. In 1955, the first standardized shipping container was introduced by an American trucking entrepreneur named Malcolm McLean. McLean was looking for ways to reduce the time and cost of loading and unloading cargo from ships, and he realized that using containers that could be loaded directly onto ships could be the answer.

McLean’s idea was initially met with skepticism, but he persevered and established a company called Sea-Land Service to develop and promote the use of standardized containers. By the 1960s, containerization had become a widely accepted practice in the shipping industry, and it has since become the most common method of moving goods around the world.

Uses of Shipping Containers

Shipping container s have a wide range of uses beyond just transporting goods. One of the most popular uses is for housing. The sturdy metal construction and modular design of shipping containers make them ideal for creating affordable and sustainable homes. Architects and builders have been using shipping containers to create everything from single-family homes to multi-unit apartment buildings and even office spaces.

Another popular use for shipping containers is for storage. Shipping containers are weather-resistant and secure, making them a great option for storing items such as tools, equipment, and vehicles. They are also commonly used for temporary storage during construction projects or as a portable storage unit for businesses.

Shipping containers are also used for pop-up shops and restaurants. The modular design of shipping containers allows them to be easily transported and set up in various locations. This makes them a popular option for businesses that want to create a unique and mobile storefront.

Impact of Shipping Containers on Global Trade

The use of shipping containers has had a significant impact on global trade. Prior to the introduction of containerization, goods were transported in a variety of ways, including loose in the hold of a ship, in sacks or boxes, or on pallets. This made loading and unloading slow and labor-intensive, and it often resulted in damage to the cargo.

With the introduction of standardized shipping containers, loading and unloading became much faster and more efficient. The containers could be easily moved from ship to truck to train without the need for unpacking and repacking. This reduced the time and cost of transporting goods, making it possible to move larger volumes of cargo at a lower cost.

Shipping Containers are the cargo containers that allow goods to be stored for transport in trucks, trains and boats, making intermodal transport possible.  They are typically used to transport heavy materials or palletized goods.  Shipping Containers are used to protect transported cargo from shock and bad weather conditions, as well as keep storage products intact. They were first used in the 1950s and were initially developed for the purpose of commercial shipping.

Shipping containers are also referred to as, ISO container, conex box, railroad container, intermodal container and certain truck trailers. This industry term refers to the International Standards Organization (ISO), the largest developer of international standards and the organization that developed the standard dimension specifications for steel shipping containers used worldwide.

The design of the ISO standard containers allows for intermodal shipping, which is the movement of containers from one mode of transport to another, like ship, rail, or truck, without the need of having to load and unload, and reload its contents.

Shipping Containers are used to protect transported cargo from shock and bad weather conditions, as well as keep storage products intact. They were first used in the 1950s and were initially developed for the purpose of commercial shipping container transport.

Depending on the type of product that is going to be sent, the Shipping Container can vary in dimension, structure, material, etc. Characteristics of these shipping containers were later standardized, something that expedited transport without the need to load and unload the merchandise along the way.

Buying a Shipping Container for Sale

Purchasing shipping containers is a popular option for individuals and businesses alike. These sturdy metal boxes are designed for transporting goods by sea or land and are well-known for their durability, resistance to the elements, and security features.

One of the most significant advantages of buying shipping containers is their versatility. They can be used for a wide range of purposes, from storage sheds and workshops to temporary offices and living spaces. Many people also opt to convert shipping containers into tiny homes or vacation homes, taking advantage of their modular design and portability.

When considering purchasing a shipping container, there are a few things to keep in mind. First, it’s essential to think about the size of the container you’ll need. Shipping containers come in a variety of sizes, with the most common being 10 feet, 20 feet, and 40 feet. Consider the purpose of the container and the amount of space you’ll need to ensure that you choose the right size.

It’s also crucial to think about the condition of the container. Used shipping containers are widely available and can be purchased at a lower price than new containers. However, it’s essential to inspect the container thoroughly before buying to ensure that it’s in good condition and free of any damage that could compromise its structural integrity.

Another factor to consider is the location of the container. If you plan to use the container for storage on your property, you’ll need to make sure that you have enough space to accommodate it. Additionally, if you’re planning to transport the container, you’ll need to arrange for transportation and make sure that you have the necessary permits and approvals.

There are different types of Shipping Containers for different types of transportation:

Common Types of Shipping Containers

Shipping Containers are another name for the conex boxes most used on the market.  Shipping Containers are typically suitable for any type of dry cargo: pallets, boxes, bags, machines, furniture, etc.

Shipping containers come in different types and sizes, each designed for specific purposes. The most common types are:

Dry Containers: These are standard containers that are used to transport dry goods such as electronics, clothing, and furniture.

Reefer Containers: These are insulated containers that are used to transport perishable goods such as fruits, vegetables, and pharmaceuticals. They have built-in refrigeration units that keep the cargo at a specific temperature.

Flat Rack Containers: These containers are used to transport oversized cargo such as machinery, vehicles, and construction materials. They have collapsible sides that make loading and unloading easier.

Open Top Containers: These containers are designed to transport goods that are too tall to fit in a standard container. They have a removable roof that allows for top loading.

Tank Containers: These are used to transport liquids and gases such as chemicals, fuels, and food products. They are built with a cylindrical shape and are often used for hazardous materials.

Dry Storage Shipping Containers are your typical standard shipping containers.  Basic construction is made of steel, and hermetically sealed, without cooling or ventilation.  Sizes typically come in 20 ‘, 40’ or 40 ‘High Cube.  The High Cube category facilitates an increase of 13% of the internal cubic capacity and can handle the heaviest loads (coal, tobacco, etc.)

Refrigerated Shipping Container

Reefer Shipping Containers provide a temperature controlled environment. They have a power supply that connects to energy sources during transport. This allows the products to be transported at a constant temperature throughout the journey. They have the possibility to lower temperature from -18 ° to 30 °.  There are 20 and 40 foot models, in addition to the High Cube.

This type of Shipping Container is especially recommended for transporting food or products that need a low storage temperature.

Open Top Shipping Container

Open Top Shipping Container have the same measurements as the standard containers, but are open at the top because they have a removable canvas roof.  These containers facilitate the transport of bulky loads.

Flat Rack Shipping Container

Flat Rack Shipping Containers are like the Open Top, but also lack side walls and even, in some cases, front and rear walls. They are used for atypical loads and pay supplements in the same way as Open Top.

Open Side Shipping Container

Open Side Shipping Containers have the same measurements as standard containers; 20 or 40 feet, with the difference that they have a side opening. This allows for transporting very long merchandise, whose dimensions prevent it from being loaded by the back door.

Tank Shipping Container

Tank Shipping Containers are used for the liquid transport and made to carry dangerous as toxic, corrosive, highly combustible chemicals, as well as oil, milk, beers, wine, mineral water, etc. They have the same dimensions as a Dry Shipping Containers, but their structure is different, as they include a polyethylene tank inside.

Ventilated Shipping Containers

Ventilated Shipping Containers are made for transporting products such as coffee or cocoa beans, which must be ventilated in transit; sometimes these units are called “coffee containers”.

Shipping Container Dimensions

Shipping containers come in a range of sizes, each with its own standard dimensions. These metal boxes are commonly used for the transportation of goods across oceans and continents, making them an essential part of the global economy.

The most common shipping container sizes are 10 feet, 20 feet, and 40 feet in length. Standard shipping container widths are 8 feet, and the height is typically 8 feet 6 inches. These dimensions are set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is responsible for the development of international standards.

The 10-foot shipping container is the smallest and least commonly used container size. This size is ideal for those in need of a small storage unit, and it can be easily transported via truck or train.

The 20-foot shipping container is the most commonly used container size, and it is suitable for various purposes such as storage or transportation of goods. This size is easy to transport, and it can hold a significant amount of cargo.

The 40-foot shipping container is the largest and most spacious container size available. It is ideal for shipping large volumes of goods or for use as a storage unit for oversized equipment or machinery.

In addition to the standard sizes mentioned above, there are other non-standard shipping container sizes available. These containers are typically custom-made to suit specific requirements, and they can be used for various purposes such as pop-up shops or mobile offices.

It is important to note that shipping container dimensions may vary slightly depending on the manufacturer. Therefore, it is crucial to confirm the container’s exact dimensions before making any purchase or transportation arrangements.

Shipping Container Door Diagram and Troubleshooting

Now we are going to run through the essential parts of a shipping container.

  • For a door to work, you need hinges. Pins hold the shipping container’s hinges together through a barrel.  In certain cases when doors are difficult to open, hinge pins and blades may be seized due to corrosion.  Each door is fitted with 2 to 4 vertical lock rods to enable opening, closing and locking of the doors.
  • The door handle rotates the lockbar to initiate the door opening process by forcing the cams out of their keepers. Each door handle has a door locking handle retainer that slides over the door handle when in locked position.
  • At the end of each lock rod is a cam welded in place which engages with knuckles, also known as cam keepers. The action of engaging the cams to the keepers forms an anti-racking function.  In certain cases, often unfortunately too many, contents of the shipping container may have shifted causing shipping container doors and lockrods to warp. 
  • When opening a shipping container, start with the right hand door first. Swivel the handles, engage the cams and keepers, and twist both door handles.  Closing the doors is just a reverse of this process.
  • The lock box is a steel box welded to the right hand door which overlaps a staple welded to the left hand door. A padlock, normally CISA type 285 66 can then be attached inside the lock box through the staple and is then protected from direct attack, hindering attempts to gain entry to the container.
  • ISO markings and a consolidated data plate allow worldwide intermodal transport and are updated as necessary. Take note that customs authorities in some countries may also have their own container seal regulations as part of their national security.
  • Rubber gaskets are fitted to the container doors during the manufacturing process and prevent water ingress. Door gaskets are designed to present two or more fins against the structure or adjacent door. These are generally flexible but when the gasket is damaged, they may become stiff thus jamming the door closed, or preventing it from being closed.
  1. Doors

Two door leaves are fabricated from two vertical rolled hollow sections and 2 horizontal c section members. The frame is infilled with corrugated steel paneling.

These are normally attached to the rear corner posts each with four drop forged steel hinge blades. The blades allow 270 degree opening which allow the doors to swing back against the container side wall.

(Cargo may shift during transit. Look at the container to make sure that the doors are aligned and level, both top and bottom.  In cases where the container frame is racked and the door gear will not operate correctly.)

  1. Lockbox

The lock box is a steel box welded to the right hand door which overlaps a staple welded to the left hand door. A padlock, normally type CISA type 285 66 can then be attached inside the lock box through the staple and is then protected from direct attack, hindering attempts to gain entry to the container.

  1. Lockrods, cam keepers, handles

Each door is fitted with 2-4 vertical lock rods to enable opening, closing and locking of the doors.

At the end of each lock rod (top and bottom) is a cam welded in place which engages with knuckles, also known as cam keepers.

The action of engaging the cams to the keepers forms an anti-racking function.

(In certain cases, often unfortunately too many, contents of the shipping container may have shifted, or containers even dropped, causing shipping container doors and lockrods to warp)

The door handle rotates the lockbar to initiates the door opening process by forcing the cams out of their keepers.  Each door handle has a door locking handle retainer that slides over the door handle when in locked position.

  1. Rubber gaskets

Rubber gaskets are fitted to the container doors during the manufacturing process and prevent water ingress.

(Door gaskets are designed to present two or more fins against the structure or adjacent door. These are generally flexible but when the gasket is damaged, they may become hard or blocked thus jamming the door closed, or preventing it being closed.)

  1. ISO markings and CSC plate

ISO markings and a consolidated data plate allow worldwide intermodal transport when left in place and updated as necessary.

  1. Hinge pins

Of course for a door to work, you need hinges.

(In certain cases when doors are difficult to open, hinge pins and blade are seized due to corrosion.)

Choosing the Right Company for Buying a Shipping Container

When doing research in finding the right Shipping Container, follow some of these tips:

Research Online

Choose which companies have a good track record of excellence and reputation.  Read reviews and what other customers have to say.

Check for Availability

If you are shipping from various locations, check for availability if containers can be delivered to your required areas.

Check for Best Pricing

If money matters, you can find used container resellers online that might be able to offer half the price on used containers.

Check for Good Customer Service

If you plan to order often, you might want to check for good customer service.  Ask potential container companies a question through email or their online customer service. See how fast they respond.

Check for Warranty

Check with companies to see if they offer any warranties or buy back or trade in plans.

There are millions of Shipping Containers in use around the world, and a lucky few get a second life as repurposed shipping container structures. While they look a bit plain and boxy to the untrained eye, shipping containers play a critical role in our lives, whether embarking on ocean crossings to deliver the goods we use every day or venturing into a second life as a container structure.

Here are Some Fascinating Facts about Shipping Containers

  • Shipping Containers can be safely stacked nine-high.
  • Well-maintained Shipping Containers hold 759, of their original value for 25+ years.
  • There are over 37 million Shipping Containers in use around the world.
  • A Shipping Container floor can hold up 55,000 lb. of goods without warping.
  • Shipping Container flooring is made of 1-1/8” marine grade plywood.
  • Most Shipping Containers are 20 feet or 40-feet long.
  • Shipping Containers are made of 16-gauge corten steel.
  • Common container modifications include: personnel doors, windows flooring, shelving, work stations, insulation, climate control & even restrooms.

Fun Ways to Use Shipping Containers

Shipping Containers are not just used for cargo these days. There are many innovative and imaginative uses you may like to consider.

Here are few ideas of how shipping containers have been used for modern, cost effective buildings.


The trend to build cost-effective homes from recycled shipping containers started in USA and has reached Australia.

Art Galleries

Architect, Tomokaza Hayakawa designed an art gallery in Japan using two shipping containers stacked on each other.

Drive-Thru Coffee

Starbucks in Washington have used four old shipping containers to create an architect designed drive-thru store.


A cafe in Footscray (Melbourne) called Rudimentary has been built using three 40-foot shipping containers.

Polar Stations

India has built a Polar Station in Antarctica using 134 shipping containers. They cover three floors and are well insulated for the weather conditions.

A well-maintained Shipping Container can hold 75% of their original value for 25+ years. Every day, container ships transport goods all over the world on the international seas.

Shipping Container Opening and Closing Tool

Shipping containers often take a beating, traveling around the world, being exposed to freezing conditions and rust due to seawater or when the frost has melted.

During the cold season, and in freezing parts of the world, our shipping container tool can benefit the opening and closing of frozen shipping container doors and hard to open or rusted containers.

Injuries often occur as a result of personnel trying to open and close difficult container doors, and often are the result of inappropriate techniques being used to open them.

To aid in opening and closing shipping container doors, we introduce OPNBar.

A Shipping Container (also known as Intermodal Container, ISO Container,Railroad Container, and certain Truck Trailers)  is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport.   Shipping Containers can be used across different modes of transport.  They can go from ship to rail to truck, without unloading and reloading their cargo.

The metal doors on the shipping containers on these containers are standardized.  Shipping Containers use the same type and style of doors and locking bars, which our tool can be used.

Lengths are as follows: 20′, 40′, 45′, 48′, 50′, 53′. All these containers are globally used to transport cargo. The 53′ length is now, the new the standard length.

Here are some likely reasons a Shipping Container door will not open or close.  Visit  to find out how to overcome some of these issues.

Doors and lockrods may warp or container frame is racked so that the door gear will not operate correctly. This may be caused by cargo shifting during transit. Look at the container to make sure that the doors are aligned and level, both top and bottom.

The hinge pins and blade are seized due to corrosion.

The door gasket has been damaged and is preventing opening. Door gaskets are designed to present two or more fins against the structure or adjacent door. These are generally flexible but when the gasket is damaged, they may become hard or blocked thus jamming the door closed, or preventing it being closed.

Water has become trapped between frozen shipping container doors, particularly relevant to refrigerated cargoes, or containers with moisture releasing cargoes in cold weather.

For more details:-

Shipping Container Safety International

Mailing Address: 10053 Whittwood Dr, Suite 11284 Whittier, CA 90603 USA


Visit our website:-

What to do if the plastic injection mold leaks?

According to the shape and function of the injection molded process and product, consider dividing to ensure the ease of processing of the product. In order to ensure good manufacturing technology for plastic injection molding and injection molds, split into workpiece shapes suitable for grinding as much as possible, pay attention to improving EDM, and reduce manufacturing costs. During the dismantling process, the standardized design of the injection mold should be considered to facilitate assembly, disassembly and maintenance, reduce labor intensity and save maintenance costs. The thinner the core member the better. If it is too thin, it will reduce the strength of the injection mold core, and it is easy to wear or damage, which is not conducive to production and maintenance. The greater the number of parts, the greater the tolerance, which requires an increase in the cnc machining price and accuracy of each part. This will lead to an increase in manufacturing work time and manufacturing cost.

Plastic injection mold leaks are usually as follows:

  1. It appears at the joint of the injection mold cooling water pipe. If water leakage is found, the sealing tape should be wrapped around the thread of the water pipe joint, and then tightened.
  2. Due to long-term working conditions, the waterproof ring in the injection mold will be damaged, and the waterproof rubber ring is easy to harden and crack, resulting in water leakage. Poor installation of some waterproof rings can also cause seal failure. Generally, it is necessary to regularly check the installation position and sealing performance of the sealing ring
  3. The cooling hole in the injection mold is damaged. The designed wall thickness is sufficient, but the hole wall is cracked due to precision machining errors or post-processing.
  4. Maintenance of cooling water hole. The cooling water hole is easy to scale, hinders heat transfer, seriously blocks the waterway, and requires regular maintenance.

Compared with other molds, the structure of injection molds is more complex and precise, and the requirements for operation and maintenance are also higher. Therefore, during the entire injection molding production process, correct use and careful maintenance are of great significance to maintain the normal and efficient production of the enterprise.

Precision CNC Machining Price Is TOO Low

It is too difficult to start from the cnc machining industry, and the cost is all transparent, so Party A can figure it out clearly. I just worked in an outsourced factory and saw the master, but it was a pity that I only made 250 in the end.

How difficult is machining, I wrote an article before “The machining industry is too miserable, it has 0 profit, and can only make money by selling iron filings…”, the story in it was told to me by the boss of the machining factory Yes, although I was shocked at the time, I didn’t realize it personally. I didn’t know how difficult machining(CNC Milling And CNC Turning) is until I stayed in the outsourcing factory for a long time today.

I bought 5 standard parts. After receiving the goods, I found that it was a semi-finished product. I still needed to make a tapered hole and an arc surface. Then I asked the outsourcing factory for help. The curved surface needs to be cut out by oblique cutting. Drilling and wire cutting sound simple, but it took the boss all afternoon to make 5 pieces (2 specifications).

Why did you only do 5 in half a day? The first is the tool preparation time, the second is the programming time, and the last is the tooling and fixture adjustment time when changing production. The time is wasted on these invalid tasks, and the actual machining time is not much. This is the biggest problem brought by small batches and multiple varieties. , the boss seems to be working very hard, but if the output cannot be increased, of course he will not be able to make money.

Although I didn’t work today, I stood for a long time, and finally my feet became numb, and the boss of the outsourcing factory was even more tired. Not only did I have to program, but I also had to turn screws, and I was physically and mentally exhausted.

The owner of the outsourcing factory is a little over 50 years old. He has been engaged in machine processing for 10 years. The scale is small and he can only support his family. I used to be very envious of these small bosses, and wanted to start a business and engage in machining, but now I am a little shaken. 10 years ago, precision CNC Milling was still very popular, but now the competition in this industry is too fierce, and the quotations are almost transparent. As mentioned earlier, I make money by selling iron filings.

Machining actually has a certain technical content, but unfortunately it was crippled by the price war. It is recommended that machining manufacturers focus on improving product quality, compete in differentiation, align with high-end manufacturing, and build a brand and reputation. This is the ultimate way out .

Ceramic COB LED Packaging Technology

The LED packaging method is to connect the chip (Die) with its heat dissipation substrate Submount (submount technology) by wire bonding, eutectic or flip chip packaging technology to form an LED chip, and then fix the chip on the system board and connect it to form a light source module. Group.

At present, LED packaging methods can be roughly divided into lens-type and reflector-type. The molding of the lens can be molding or lens bonding; while the reflector-type chip is more It consists of glue mixing, dispensing, and packaging; in recent years, epitaxy, die-bonding, and packaging design have gradually matured, and the chip size and structure of LEDs have been miniaturized year by year. The power of a high-power single chip can reach 1~3W, or even more than 3W. As the power of LEDs continues to increase, the heat dissipation and heat resistance requirements for LED chip boards and system circuit boards are becoming increasingly stringent.

In view of the comprehensive considerations of insulation, voltage resistance, heat dissipation and heat resistance, ceramic substrates have become one of the important materials for chip sub-attachment technology. Its technology can be divided into thick film process (Thick film), low temperature co-fired process (LTCC) and thin film process (DPC). However, the thick film process and low-temperature co-firing process use screen printing technology and high-temperature process for sintering, which are prone to rough lines, inaccurate alignment, and shrinkage ratio problems. For high-power LED products with increasingly fine lines, or Especially for LED products produced by eutectic or flip-chip processes that require accurate alignment, thick-film and low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrates have gradually become insufficient.

For this reason, the high heat dissipation coefficient thin-film ceramic heat dissipation substrate is made by sputtering, electro/chemical deposition, and yellow light lithography. It has the characteristics of precise metal lines and stable material system, and is suitable for high-power, small-sized, high-brightness LEDs. The development trend of the development trend is to solve the strict requirements of the eutectic/flip-chip packaging process on the resolution and accuracy of the metal circuit on the ceramic substrate.

When the LED chip uses ceramics as the carrier board, the heat dissipation bottleneck of the LED module is transferred to the system circuit board, which transmits heat energy from the LED chip to the heat dissipation fins and the atmosphere. With the gradual improvement of the LED chip function, the material also Gradually changed from FR4 to metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB), but with the progress of high-power LED demand, the heat dissipation coefficient (2~4W/mk) of MCPCB material cannot be used for higher power products. For this reason, ceramic circuits The demand for ceramic circuit boards has gradually become popular. In order to ensure the material stability and light attenuation stability of LED products under high-power operation, the trend of ceramic machining or using ceramics as heat dissipation and metal wiring substrates has become increasingly clear. The cost of ceramic materials is currently higher than that of MCPCB. Therefore, how to use the high heat dissipation coefficient of ceramics to save material usage area and reduce production costs has become one of the important indicators for the development of ceramic LEDs.

Therefore, in recent years, the integration of polycrystalline packaging and system circuits with ceramic material COB design has gradually attracted the attention of various packaging and system manufacturers. COB is not a new technology in the electronics manufacturing industry. It refers to directly pasting the bare epitaxial wafer on the circuit board, and directly soldering the wire/welding wire to the gold-plated circuit of the PCB, which is also commonly known as the bonding wire. (Wire bonding), and through the sealing technology, the packaging steps in the IC manufacturing process are effectively transferred to the circuit board for direct assembly.

In the LED industry, since modern technology products are more and more concerned about lightness and high portability, in addition, in order to save the space problem of the system board designed with multiple LED chips, in the demand of high-power LED systems, a direct chip-attached LED has been developed. COB technology attached to the system board.

The advantages of COB are: high cost-effectiveness, simple circuit design, saving system board space, etc., but there are also technical thresholds for chip integration brightness, color temperature adjustment, and system integration. Taking the 25W LED as an example, the traditional high-power 25W LED light source must be packaged into 25 LED components with 25 1W LED chips, and the COB package is to package 25 1W LED chips in a single chip, so the required The secondary optical lens will be reduced from 25 pieces to 1 piece, which will help reduce the area of the light source, reduce materials, and system costs, thereby simplifying the secondary optical design of the light source system and saving labor costs for assembly. In addition, the high-power COB package only needs a single high-power LED to replace multiple LED packages of 1 watt or more, making the product thinner, lighter and smaller.

At present, the production of COB products on the market still mainly uses MCPCB substrates. However, MCPCB still has many problems of heat dissipation and excessive light source area to be solved. Therefore, the fundamental way is to update heat dissipation materials to the most effective led light solution. Ceramic COB substrates have the following advantages:

  • Thin film technology makes the basic circuit more accurate,
  • Large quantity reduces cost,
  • High plasticity, can be designed according to different needs.

Currently, the LED bulbs made of MCPCB substrate COB chips cannot be dimmed, and the LED dimmable bulbs assembled with ceramic COB chips by ledaladdin company are on the market. There are 5W, 6W, 7W, better performance, and the color temperature can reach 2200K— 8000K, lumens up to 60LM/W or more.

The development of ceramic MCOB/COB is a trend to simplify the system board. The practicality, brightness, heat dissipation and cost control of lighting fixtures are all important key factors. l

Link:Ceramic COB LED Packaging Technology

The Four-step Rule For LED Lighting Design

#1.The Importance Of Optical Design

LED is a point light source, which is different from energy-saving lamps or incandescent lamps currently on the market. As the name suggests, a point light source is the light emitted by a point, and the light emitted by this point also has another important feature, that is, there is light in only one direction (all traditional back reflectors are meaningless to the LED itself).

If we want to use this special light for lighting, we must do some processing on this light to meet our requirements and goals, so we need to add optical design to turn this relatively concentrated point light source into Astigmatism with a certain angle, which is the familiar straw hat LED. Straw hat LED is a packaging form professionally used in lighting design. On the one hand, it can make the 100 150 200W Wide Angle UFO LED High Bay Lights change from a concentrated point light source to a diffuse A light source, on the other hand, has less of a light decay effect and lets more light through for us to use.

Although the straw hat LED has made a qualitative leap in the optical angle, it is still a point light source compared to the surface light source we are familiar with. Because the brightness is too concentrated, if the human eye looks directly at the light source, it will still hurt us. Eyes cause some damage.

Therefore, when LED lighting is used in home lighting, we need to further process the light and add a certain optical design to achieve the purpose of direct observation by the human eye, while softening the light. The angle of illumination, although the straw hat LED itself has achieved a range of 120 degrees, if it is directly applied to home lighting, it gives us the feeling that the roof is completely dark, and we need to use the outermost transparent cover of the lamp to disperse the light again. , thus adapting to normal household lighting.

#2.The Difference Between High-Power And Low-Power LED

With the continuous development of LED technology, people have developed single LED chips with increasing power to adapt to High Power LED Bulb Light With High Lumen LEDs. Great, but not great value for money. Let’s take some common LEDs as an example to do an analysis.

At present, a large number of single 0.06W power is used in the industry, and its maximum brightness can reach 7LM. We temporarily calculate it according to the ordinary 6LM. If we want to make the power reach 1W, we need to use 17 same LEDs. The total brightness It is 17*6=102LM, that is to say, it can achieve 100LM/W. If we use a single chip with a power of 1W, its output brightness can reach up to 80LM, and the commonly used ones are generally around 60LM. The main difference, it can be seen that for home use, we still have to choose low-power LEDs.

From the perspective of product cost, the cost of high-power LEDs is higher than that of low-power LEDs. This comes from two aspects. One is the cost of the LED itself, and the other is that high-power LEDs need to add aluminum heat sinks. The circuit board, coupled with natural heat dissipation, can meet the requirements.

From the perspective of product maintenance costs in the future, if our lamps fail during use, we can find any electrical repair shop to replace the damaged LED. The cost of a 0.06W LED is at most 1 yuan, plus the maintenance fee is no more than 5 yuan, if it is to replace a 1W LED, the LED cost will be 8 yuan, and the maintenance cost will be about 15 yuan. Relatively speaking, low-power LEDs can be purchased in any electronic market, but high-power LEDs may not be available everywhere.

It is a market trend and the mainstream of future development for LEDs to move towards high power. However, due to the technical failure to achieve the desired results, from a technical point of view, it is not yet suitable for home lighting.

#3.The Importance Of Thermal Design

LED itself is a semiconductor device, and all semiconductor devices have certain temperature requirements for normal operation, including ambient temperature and operating temperature. Generally, the ambient temperature for the normal operation of semiconductor devices is lower than 80 degrees. When the temperature of the PN junction inside the LED reaches 140 degrees, it will fail. During normal operation, its own temperature will be radiated through the pins or special base, and then radiated into the surrounding air through the circuit board or aluminum substrate connected to the pins to ensure the normal operation of the LED.

Generally speaking, if the power of a single chip is greater than 0.2W, an aluminum substrate must be used for heat dissipation. If the power is higher, an aluminum shell and aluminum heat sink should be added. Of course, this is related to the number and density of LEDs in the entire lamp, and the heat dissipation design should also be considered for low-power LEDs that are too concentrated. This is like every electronic product around you, such as: TVs, monitors, computer hosts, etc. Improper heat dissipation design will directly lead to shortened LED life and accelerated light decay.

Now most of the upper limit of junction temperature can reach about 120 degrees, and the current CREE should be considered relatively high, which is 150 degrees.

The thermal resistance of the lamp bead varies according to the structure of the packaging material. Some multi-chips are as high as dozens, and single-chips are generally single digits, at most a dozen. Of course, this is directly related to the junction temperature, which is related to the life of the LED and the Integral Precision Dia Casting LED Canopy Light efficiency. Waiting for important parameters.

At present, the design life of most LED lamps is 20000~50000H, which is determined by many factors. First of all, the life of IC and so on limits the life of the whole lamp.

From the perspective of heat dissipation in terms of structural layout, it is actually a problem of contact thermal resistance and heat conduction bottleneck, which involves many things and is not easy to list. Generally speaking, the structure is integrated, and the large area is in good contact. The lamp beads on the PCB should be evenly distributed as much as possible to avoid the concentration of heat sources.

Of course, the higher the driving efficiency, the better. The layout should be based on the largest heat source, that is, LED lamp beads. Glue filling and other methods can be used to achieve the effect of heat dissipation, fixed insulation.

Comprehensive consideration: the temperature rise of a good heat dissipation design is best controlled below 35. The junction temperature is below 80. The theoretical lifespan is more than 50,000.

#4.Current Heat Dissipation Design Problems

  • Natural heat dissipation is too limited by space (radiation heat dissipation itself is less affected and limited by space size).
  • The natural heat dissipation area has limited room for improvement (limited convection heat dissipation).
  • At present, metal parts are used as radiators, and the heat conduction in a small space is sufficient. (The temperature difference of the radiator is small, and the influence of thermal conductivity is small).
  • Most of the heat dissipation design can only focus on the selection of lamp beads, heat dissipation area, interface contact thermal resistance, and radiation heat dissipation. Almost dead end.
  • At present, the breakthrough point of heat dissipation design is the heat dissipation design of the lighting system, which is the result of the combination of actual production, material accessories, structural modeling and heat dissipation design.

Link:The Four-step Rule For LED Lighting Design