What is a Conex Box

Conex Boxes are also known as shipping containers, and are the cargo containers that allow goods to be stored for transport in trucks, trains and boats, making intermodal transport possible.  They are typically used to transport heavy materials or palletized goods.


This type shipping term was referred to as Container Express and became to be abbreviated as “ConEx.”  Conex became universal and was later used to identify the entire category of shipping containers.  Connex is also an accepted spelling.

Conex is also referred to as shipping container, ISO container, conex box, railroad container, intermodal container and certain truck trailers. This industry term refers to the International Standards Organization (ISO), the largest developer of international standards and the organization that developed the standard dimension specifications for steel shipping containers used worldwide.

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The design of the ISO standard containers allows for intermodal shipping, which is the movement of containers from one mode of transport to another, like ship, rail, or truck, without the need of having to load and unload, and reload its contents.

Conex Boxes are used to protect transported cargo from shock and bad weather conditions, as well as keep storage products intact. They were first used in the 1950s and were initially developed for the purpose of commercial shipping.

Depending on the type of product that is going to be sent, the Conex box can vary in dimension, structure, material, etc. Characteristics of these shipping containers were later standardized, something that expedited transport without the need to load and unload the merchandise along the way.

There are different types of Conex Boxes for different types of transportation:

Common types include:

– Dry Storage Conex Boxes

– Refrigerated Conex Boxes

– Open Top Conex Boxes

– Flat Rack Conex Boxes

– Open Side Conex Boxes

– Tank Conex Boxes

– Ventilated Conex Boxes

Dry Storage Conex Box Container

Dry Storage Conex Box shipping containers are your typical standard shipping containers.  Basic construction is made of steel, and hermetically sealed, without cooling or ventilation.  Sizes typically come in 20 ‘, 40’ or 40 ‘High Cube.  The High Cube category facilitates an increase of 13% of the internal cubic capacity and can handle the heaviest loads (coal, tobacco, etc.)

Refrigerated Conex Box Container

Reefer Conex Box containers provide a temperature controlled environment. They have a power supply that connects to energy sources during transport. This allows the products to be transported at a constant temperature throughout the journey. They have the possibility to lower temperature from -18 ° to 30 °.  There are 20 and 40 foot models, in addition to the High Cube.  This type of Conex Box container is especially recommended for transporting food or products that need a low storage temperature.

Open Top Conex Box

Open Top Conex Box containers have the same measurements as the standard containers, but are open at the top because they have a removable canvas roof.  These containers facilitate the transport of bulky loads.

Flat Rack Conex Box

Flat Rack Conex Box containers are like the Open Top, but also lack side walls and even, in some cases, front and rear walls. They are used for atypical loads and pay supplements in the same way as Open Top.

Open Side Conex Box

Open Side Conex Box containers have the same measurements as standard containers; 20 or 40 feet, with the difference that they have a side opening. This allows for transporting very long merchandise, whose dimensions prevent it from being loaded by the back door.

Tank Conex Box Container

Tank Conex Box containers are used for the liquid transport and made to carry dangerous as toxic, corrosive, highly combustible chemicals, as well as oil, milk, beers, wine, mineral water, etc. They have the same dimensions as a Dry Conex Box Containers, but their structure is different, as they include a polyethylene tank inside.

Ventilated Conex Box Containers

Ventilated Conex Box containers are made for transporting products such as coffee or cocoa beans, which must be ventilated in transit; sometimes these units are called “coffee containers”.

Now we are going to run through the essential parts of a conex box.

For a door to work, you need hinges.  Pins hold the conex box’s hinges together through a barrel.  In certain cases when doors are difficult to open, hinge pins and blades may be seized due to corrosion.

Each door is fitted with 2 to 4 vertical lock rods to enable opening, closing and locking of the doors.

The door handle rotates the lockbar to initiate the door opening process by forcing the cams out of their keepers. Each door handle has a door locking handle retainer that slides over the door handle when in locked position.

At the end of each lock rod is a cam welded in place which engages with knuckles, also known as cam keepers.  The action of engaging the cams to the keepers forms an anti-racking function.  In certain cases, often unfortunately too many, contents of the conex box may have shifted causing conex box doors and lockrods to warp.

When opening a conex box, start with the right hand door first.  Swivel the handles, engage the cams and keepers, and twist both door handles.  Closing the doors is just a reverse of this process.

The lock box is a steel box welded to the right hand door which overlaps a staple welded to the left hand door. A padlock, normally CISA type 285 66 can then be attached inside the lock box through the staple and is then protected from direct attack, hindering attempts to gain entry to the container.

ISO markings and a consolidated data plate allow worldwide intermodal transport and are updated as necessary.

Take note that customs authorities in some countries may also have their own container seal regulations as part of their national security.

Rubber gaskets are fitted to the container doors during the manufacturing process and prevent water ingress.  Door gaskets are designed to present two or more fins against the structure or adjacent door. These are generally flexible but when the gasket is damaged, they may become stiff thus jamming the door closed, or preventing it from being closed.

Conex boxes often take a beating, traveling around the world, being exposed to freezing conditions and rust due to seawater or when the frost has melted.

During the cold season, and in freezing parts of the world, our conex box tool can benefit the opening and closing of frozen conex box doors and hard to open or rusted containers.

Injuries often occur as a result of personnel trying to open and close difficult container doors, and often are the result of inappropriate techniques being used to open them.

Conex Box

Opening and Closing Tool

A Conex Box (also known as Intermodal Container, ISO Container,Railroad Container, and certain Truck Trailers)  is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport.   Conex Boxes can be used across different modes of transport.  They can go from ship to rail to truck, without unloading and reloading their cargo.

The metal doors on the shipping containers on these containers are standardized.  Conex Box containers use the same type and style of doors and locking bars, which our tool can be used.

Lengths are as follows: 20′, 40′, 45′, 48′, 50′, 53′. All these containers are globally used to transport cargo. The 53′ length is now, the new the standard length.

Here are some likely reasons a Conex Box shipping container door will not open or close.  Our tool helps to address these issues.

– Doors and lockrods may warp or container frame is racked so that the door gear will not operate correctly. This may be caused by cargo shifting during transit. Look at the container to make sure that the doors are aligned and level, both top and bottom.

– The hinge pins and blade are seized due to corrosion.

– The door gasket has been damaged and is preventing opening. Door gaskets are designed to present two or more fins against the structure or adjacent door. These are generally flexible but when the gasket is damaged, they may become hard or blocked thus jamming the door closed, or preventing it being closed.

– Water has become trapped between frozen shipping container doors, particularly relevant to refrigerated cargoes, or containers with moisture releasing cargoes in cold weather.

To aid in opening and closing conex box doors, we introduce OPNBar.

Our conex box tool can simplify the opening/closing of conex boxes in freezing or wet conditions. It’s versatility can also help to open/close rusted or worn out containers, thump tires, and release tractor from trailer.

Our 3 in 1 conex box tool gives you the best bang for your buck in addition to the safety and savings our tool provides to trucking companies and their safety departments, along with insurance companies, reduced workman’s comp claims.


Trucking Company Safety – Reduce Injury / Workmans Comp Risk

Did you know that cargo and insurance companies lose billions a year due to operator injury? We introduce  3 Trucker Tools in 1! A conex box safety hand leverage tool, designed for opening and closing trucking and conex boxes, a Tire Thumper, and 5th Wheel Pull Hook, designed with the safety of the driver, operator, and worker foremost in mind.

For more information, visit: http://www.shippingcontainertool.com

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Choosing the Right Company for Buying a Conex Box

When doing research in finding the right conex box, follow some of these tips:

Research Online

Choose which companies have a good track record of excellence and reputation.  Read reviews and what other customers have to say.

Check for Availability

If you are shipping from various locations, check for availability if containers can be delivered to your required areas.

Check for Best Pricing

If money matters, you can find used container resellers online that might be able to offer half the price on used containers.

Check for Good Customer Service

If you plan to order often, you might want to check for good customer service.  Ask potential container companies a question through email or their online customer service. See how fast they respond.

Check for Warranty

Check with companies to see if they offer any warranties or buy back or trade in plans.

There are millions of Conex Boxes in use around the world, and a lucky few get a second life as repurposed shipping container structures. While they look a bit plain and boxy to the untrained eye, shipping containers play a critical role in our lives, whether embarking on ocean crossings to deliver the goods we use every day or venturing into a second life as a container structure.

Here are Some Fascinating Facts about Conex Boxes

– Conex Box shipping containers can be safely stacked nine-high.

– Well-maintained Conex Box shipping containers hold 759, of their original value for 25+ years.

– There are over 37 million Conex Box shipping containers in use around the world.

– A Conex box floor can hold up 55,000 lb. of goods without warping.

– Conex Box flooring is made of 1-1/8” marine grade plywood.

– Most Conex Box containers are 20 feet or 40-feet long.

– Conex Box shipping containers are made of 16-gauge corten steel.

– Common container modifications include: personnel doors, windows flooring, shelving, work stations, insulation, climate control & even restrooms.


Work gloves are worn to protect hands from potential mechanical hazards such as punctures, abrasions, cuts, and flame. They are further specialized for performing a certain task. These include multipurpose work gloves, construction gloves, general utility gloves, mechanics gloves (automotive work), leather welding gloves, insulated work gloves ( to keep warm during winters), leather working gloves, and rubber or latex gloves.

We should wear work gloves when working with hazardous chemicals and risky materials because they give protection against infections, contamination, and hazards including:





Acid spillage

Cuts and wounds


Industrial environments of today carry many activities that have risks. Governments and businesses in many countries define guidelines that benefit the safety of their workers. Many industrial applications promote the use of nitrile coated work gloves for industry workers as a means of safety.

For Those with Allergy Concerns

Nitrile coated work gloves are a type of glove made from nylone and coated with synthetic rubber. Nitrile is a polymer compound with a production process similar to that of making rubber. Unlike rubber however, nitrile is a 100% synthetic substance and typically does not create any type of allergic reaction on the human body and as a result, is accepted and used in many businesses. Nitrile is the synthetic form of latex and is commonly chosen for its strength.

Nitrile Latex vs Rubber

Just like natural rubber, Nitrile latex does not contain latex proteins. Nitrile rubber provides excellent resistance to tears and punctures and is almost 3 times stronger than natural rubber. Nitrile stands up well to oil, and makes it is a good choice for handling small wet/oily parts.

Features of Nitrile Coated Work Gloves

The main feature of knit nylon work gloves coated with nitrile is their good grip and dexterity. Nitrile coated palm and fingers provide protection from abrasion, excellent grip, are extremely thin and durable, are breathable, comfortable, cut resistant, have great dexterity, tactility, and sensitivity.

There are various types of Nitrile coated glove dips available, some of them which include Nitrile palm coated work gloves, foam Nitrile coated gloves, and fully coated Nitrile gloves.

All-Weather Work Gloves

Many businesses use nitrile work gloves for their workers and most of these companies, especially in cold weather areas of the world. Nitrile coated work gloves can keep worker’s hands warm in cold weather conditions and allow them to move their hands freely and easily even in cold conditions as well as protect their hands from harmful substances, cuts, and abrasion.

Works Well with Wet Conditions and Oil

Nitrile coated work gloves withstand oils and have tactility even when wet. Nitrile coatings protect hands by preventing oil from penetrating through the gloves. Some applications include working with small or oily parts, as nitrile coating provides a secure grip.

Durable and Long Lasting

Nitrile coated work gloves do not easily break down, delaminate or blister-like other coating materials in the presence of oils and in general. This makes nitrile coated gloves a choice for jobs that require a high degree of sensitivity and dexterity, especially when grip is important such as assembly, construction, painting, working on automotive, handling small oily parts and components, gardening, machining, maintenance, warehouses, and trucking. Recreationally, they are also great for gardening, and various outdoor activities that require grip in wet conditions, like boating, fishing, hiking, and biking.

Other Information on Nitrile Coated Work Gloves

Nitrile-coated work gloves are perfect for general work because of their durability and robustness. The nitrile coating will prevent cuts, tears, and even abrasions. These gloves work well between -25 F and 350 F.

Nitrile-coated work gloves are durable, but they will not provide a robust grip in oily and wet conditions compared to micropore nitrile gloves.

Nitrile foam coating may not be ideal for liquids and adhesives because they may seep inside the gloves.

SAFER GRIP Work Gloves by OPNBAR™️ are ideal work gloves for all-day use for light manufacturing, warehouse operators, and for use in maintenance areas.

New and improved Safer Grip nitrile coated gloves by OPNBar are ideal multi-purpose work gloves for various applications like trucking and delivery, warehouses, maintenance areas, light manufacturing and carpentry. They are also great for gardening, and various outdoor activities that require grip in wet conditions, like boating, fishing, hiking, and biking.


Leather work gloves often protect hands during construction, working with lumber, masonry, and welding. They endure abrasions, heat and acts as shock absorbers, and are puncture-resistant. Leather is an easily available material with unique qualities suitable for multiple tasks. Synthetic leather is lighter than natural and dries quickly.

Specialized leather work gloves provide robustness and heat dissipation. Untreated Leather can withstand high temperatures up to 430F and 600F when tanned with chrome that makes it suitable for tasks involving heat exposure. Gauntlet-style cuffs protect wrists from metal fragments and sparks.

– Top grain leather: When it comes to comfort and dexterity it is best as its texture is smooth and soft.

– Split leather: It is more economical and denser than grain leather and more resistant to abrasion and water.

Some fabric work gloves can have leather reinforced on high wear areas like palm, fingers, and fingertips. This makes it more flexible and allows hands to breath.


Rubber or latex work gloves provide waterproofing and endurance against abrasions and vibrations. They have a coating or shell covering fingertips and palm offering a good grip, breathability, flexibility and fits tightly to the hand to improve sensitivity and dexterity.

They’re more resistant to punctures than vinyl and neoprene, but punctures can be difficult to see. Latex is not effective against all chemicals, and it tends to degrade due to contact with turpentine or petroleum-based products such as gasoline, kerosene, acetone, and mineral spirits. Some people are allergic to natural latex, so this type of glove is not suitable for everyone.


Cleaning gloves should provide more grip to hold wet objects easily. Preferably, it should have raised texture to channel more liquid away. Additionally, long cuffs of cleaning gloves keep forearms dry to avoid chapping.

Powder and powder-free cleaning work gloves: Some gloves have a powder lining to absorb moisture making it easier to wear gloves. Powder-free gloves should be used while painting, polishing, and sealing as they can mar the finishing. They are also an alternative for powder allergic people.

Reusable cleaning work gloves: These are more durable, thicker, and comfortable due to flocked lining but they provide less dexterity and touch sensitivity. They require more care and maintenance.

Disposable cleaning work gloves: They provide protection against any accidental spillage r chemical contact. They need to be replaced after every chemical contact. It provides better touch sensation and dexterity.


– A straight thumb is designed for tasks that involve gripping. A seam runs around the thumb and does not interfere with the task.

– A wing thumb design does not have a seam between palm and thumb rather has an angled thumb to provide good comfort for continuous tasks.

– A keystone thumb provides comfort and dexterity due to its ergonomic design.

– Some work gloves have a seam under two middle fingers and a natural crease cut for the palm to improve comfort.


– Fingers compatible with touch screen

– Breathable fabric to avoid sweating

– Impact-absorbing pads on the palm

– Should be flame resistant

– Easily cleanable and machine washing

– Plastic or rubber studs to protect the back of the hand from vibrations and punctures

– Vibration absorbing pads on fingers and palm


Glove cuff is designed according to a particular task; some fit tightly to protect the wrist while others have loose fittings (to allow immediate removal in case of emergency). Here are some types of cuffs;

– BAND TOP CUFF: This type of cuff has a large, loose cuff that allows quick removal upon emergency and improves breathing and airflow of hand.

– KNIT CUFF: This type of cuff has a tight wrist fitting to keep work gloves in place. It allows slow removal of gloves and prevents dirt and debris from entering.

– ELASTIC CUFF: These are easier to put on and remove because of their short length. It has a chip closure at the wrist.

– EXTENDED CUFF: Provides forearm and wrist protection with loose-fitting to improve airflow. Usually used for cleaning gloves.

– HOOK AND LOOP CUFF: It helps to keep dirt out and allows work gloves to be in place with tight-fitting.

– BALL AND TAPE CUFF: Clings tightly to the wrist and provides effective protection.

– PINKED CUFF: It has loose-fitting to allow fast removal and consists of a zigzag pattern cut into the cuff this helps to catch drips.


To find glove size use measuring tape in inches and always take measurements from the dominant hand i.e if you are right-handed take measurement from the right hand and vice versa. Some brands consider glove size by numbers and some by letters like s for small. The size of the glove varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.

– Take the measurement around the hand at the widest part excluding the thumb.

– Take another measurement from the fingertip of the middle finger to the base of the hand.


Gloves should be used with specific guidelines to ensure protection and safety.

– You should clean and maintain reusable work gloves.

– Before working with chemicals make sure that your work gloves are effective against that specific chemical.- Notice any burning or itching sensation while working because it is the indicator that you might be using the wrong glove.


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CA 90603 USA | 657.6.OPNBAR



Tips to Increase Your Chance to Win Slots by Dewagold Online


For a long time, slots have remained one of the popular online casino games to play. However, online slot machines work randomly, because of which gambling skills are not enough to get the edge in such enticing casino games. In this situation, you have to know a few things to increase your chance to win in slot games offered by dewagold and improve your gaming potential. 

Select the Slot Variant Carefully 

Whenever you visit https://dewagold.xyzto play slots online, you should understand that every slot machine is different from another slot. Different slot machines possess different soundtracks, themes, features, and symbols. Moreover, every type of slot game has different rates associated with RTP or Return to Player. Even though you may be comfortable with features and other aspects, you should choose games with a high rate of RTP. You should always check the percentage of RTP at any online casino before you start your game. 

Practice a Few Free Games

Before you should start playing slots to earn real money, you should try a few free slot games. Doing so will not only give you fun but also give you enough opportunities to know your game well. You should make sure to play slots, which have bonus rounds to hone the skills. In particular, if you visit dewagold.xyz, you may find many free online slots to enjoy your gameplay and win sign-up bonuses, referral bonuses, and other lucrative bonus offers.

Never Forget to Study the Pay Table

Each of the online slots incorporates its separate and unique pay table. This table will show the worth of every symbol and informs you of the lucrative ones. It also informs you of scatters and wild symbols present in your game. 

Set Your Budget and Stick to It

Setting your financial budget and sticking to it is an essential piece of advice related to playing in an online casino. You should strictly avoid spinning any reel until you decide on the highest sum to spend on gambling activities. In the case you reach the highest amount, stop placing bets further. Strictly avoid placing bets on anything that you cannot afford to lose.

Look for Small Jackpots Only

Slots with small jackpots often tend to give frequent payouts. Hence, if you want to win more but do not have any concerns related to chasing big bucks, you should consider slot games with small jackpots as ideal options. Even though games with big progressive jackpots entice online gamblers, they reduce your chance to claim winnings.

Check the Betting Odds of Slots

You may not be able to apply strategies to increase your chance of earning profits, your winning odds vary largely with your chosen games to play. If you want to increase your chance to boost payout, you have to look for low volatile slots. Low volatility implies that the game will pay a less significant sum but more frequently. On the other hand, high volatile slots pay many huge sums but less frequently.


Knowledge plays a vital role to achieve success in online slot games. You cannot improve your chance while playing random slot games. However, following a few expert tips on winning slots will improve your chance to win and achieve success in your favorite slot game.

Get Quick Recovery from Stomach Flu with Hydrate IV Session


Many people suffer from viral gastroenteritis, which refers to the inflammation of the intestines and stomach after exposure to the virus. Doctors refer to the problem as stomach flu and the condition has 12 hours to 48 hours of incubation after exposure to bacteria or virus and may last for many days. One can get stomach flu from water or food and from direct from any person, who has the same viral infection. Moreover, people may suffer stomach flu from sharing food or utensils with an infected individual. Regardless of the underlying cause, viral gastroenteritis or stomach flu patients may get faster relief or feel better by getting a Hydrate IV session. Intravenous hydration and fluids prevent mild to severe dehydration. IV sessions also reduce the severity associated with stomach flu and speed up the recovery period to let you feel normal quickly. 

Contents of IV Formula to Deal with Stomach Flu

IV Drip formula for stomach flu contains the following content-

IV Fluids

IV Fluids comprise sterile saline solutions, which deliver fluids and nutrients directly into the patient’s bloodstream. They also rehydrate the body and make sure of 100 percent absorption.

B-Complex and Vitamin B12 Vitamins

B-Complex Vitamins refer to a complex containing 8 different vitamins to perform varieties of vital functions, including the improvement of immune functions. On the other side, Vitamins B 12 boosts energy levels and enhances mood.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C may maintain the overall immune system and play other vital roles throughout the body.

Antacid Medication

Antacids nullify the excess level of acids formed in the stomach. They also give instant relief from various symptoms related to stomach flu. Antacids even improve wellbeing and comfort while the patient recovers.

Anti-nausea Medication

Anti-nausea medication calms the patients’ stomachs and improves their comfort during their recovery from viral gastroenteritis. 

Why Intravenous Therapy for Stomach Flu

Instant Delivery

Swallowing anything orally becomes a challenging task for almost everyone who has stomach flu. In this situation, individuals should look for IV drips near me and find good clinics offering intravenous treatment in their area. Reputed IV clinics let you book your appointment and IV session in less time to let you overcome food poisoning symptoms within a few hours. Furthermore, depending on the severity of any specific food poisoning case, patients may need many days to recover. A few cases of bacterial or viral infection may require prescribed antibiotics for treatment. Intravenous therapy remedies related to food poisoning will relieve the symptoms related to food poisoning within only a few hours.

Faster Hydration

Vomiting and diarrhea drain out water and fluids from the body when a person suffers from stomach flu. Beverages infused with electrolytes, sports drinks, and plain water are vital to keep the patient hydrated and avoid complications related to dehydration. However, consistent vomiting may sometimes make ingestion difficult in the case of food poisoning. IV Drip formula and therapy will circumvent the ingestion requirements and deliver hydrated saline solution directly into the patient’s bloodstream. On the other hand, patients may get the benefits of faster hydration without any pain or discomfort.


Therefore, the IV formula for stomach flu works within a few minutes to provide fast and effective relief from various symptoms related to stomach flu.

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A Division of Palm Desert Resuscitation Education, LLC

“Renew the body, refresh the mind, and restore performance”

73700 Dinah Shore Drive, Suite 107,

Palm Desert, CA 92211




Importance of Air Ambulance Services to Transport Patients to Hospitals Immediately


The services offered by an air ambulance have recently obtained a huge demand in the medical sector. Many times healthcare professionals use the term golden hours or emergency hours to indicate the initial few hours after any health complication or injury of a person.

Golden hours determine the survival chance of a serious patient. Accordingly, the victims should get immediate access to emergency solutions and proper care to achieve a faster recovery. Here comes the role of emergency services offered by Air Ambulance 1.

Overview of Air Ambulance Service

Air Ambulance Service is a combination of air transport and emergency medical services. The service providers transport injured or sick patients from and to healthcare centers. In other words, it involves airlifting patients during emergencies. The service is a result of people who always want best-in-class healthcare facilities for their friends and family members. Accordingly, people may contact https://www.airambulance1.com/ to get emergency ambulance services in their area.

Benefits of Air Ambulance for Patients

Saves Time in Transporting Patients

Today, many people belonging to different parts of the United States approach https://www.airambulance1.com/ and book air ambulance based on it’s time-saving feature. A normal ambulance may transport patients to the hospital and give emergency treatments.

However, a regular ambulance needs relatively more time in the transportation, which possess many health risks. In such situations, air ambulance services are preferable, as they transport patients to the nearby hospital in no time.

Contains High-tech Medical Instruments

Good air ambulance service providers, like https://www.airambulance1.com/ have aircraft equipped with many high-tech medical instruments. Each of these devices and systems may monitor and treat ill patients depending on underlying demands.

Many times, patients require immediate treatment failure to which may lead to brain damage, disability, or death. Luckily, air ambulance vehicles incorporate various on-board medical equipment for emergency response of victims until they reach to the hospital.

Involves a High Level of Care

Another benefit associated with air ambulance is it involves a high level of care. Many patients often fail to handle the discomfort associated with ground healthcare transportation. Furthermore, the condition of patients becomes gradually worse when they have to make a long-distance journey while going to a hospital. In contrast, https://www.airambulance1.com/ resolves all such problems and take the patient to any speciality hospital in less possible time.

Round the Clock Service

The best thing about any air ambulance service is that it offers round-the-clock service to fulfill the emergency needs of patients. Moreover, based on the service complicity, each air ambulance vehicle has an experienced flight coordinator. As expert of the area, he works by updating each of the involved parties. These are origin and destination hospitals, medical staff, and family members.


Air ambulance is a crucial service provider in the United States of America. It offers fully-equipped aircraft with emergency medical facilities to use during emergencies. Aircraft ambulance vehicles may relocate patients from a particular place to another one and also from one country to another one.

Microfiber Bed Sheets

Is Microfiber Bed Sheets Better Than Cotton Sheets?

Microfiber bed sheets have become increasingly popular in recent years, and there are good reasons for this. In this article, we will compare and contrast the two types of bed sheets to see which one is better for you.

What are the Differences between Microfiber bed sheets and Cotton Sheets?

There are many different types of bed sheets on the market, each with its own unique set of benefits and drawbacks. Some people prefer cotton sheets because they are soft and comfortable, while others may prefer microfiber bed sheets because they are hypoallergenic and easier to clean. Here are some key differences between cotton and microfiber sheets:

  • Cotton is absorbent and can be heavy when wet, while microfiber is not as absorbent and can be lighter weight;
  • Cotton can grow mildew if it’s not stored in a dry area, while microfiber will not;
  • Cotton sheets can be torn relatively easily, while Microfiber Bed Sheets is more resistant to tearing;
  • Cotton sheets may contain harmful chemicals that can cause skin irritation or other health problems, while microfiber is generally free of these chemicals.

Pros and Cons of Microfiber Sheets

Microfiber bed sheets are better than cotton sheets because they:

  • Are more absorbent than cotton sheets, meaning they will hold more water and sweat.
  • Are not as itchy as cotton sheets.
  • Are less likely to cause allergies.
  • Are less likely to cause skin irritation.
  • Dishwasher safe.
  • Can be reused multiple times.

How to Choose the Right Size Sheet for Your Bed?

When it comes to purchasing Microfiber Bed Sheets for your bed, there are a few things you should keep in mind. The size of the sheet is important, as is the material it is made of. Here are some tips on how to choose the right size sheet and what you should look for when choosing a microfiber bed sheet:

The first thing to remember when shopping for sheets is that your bed is typically bigger than your mattress. This means that you will need at least a full-size sheet, even if your mattress is on the smaller side. A twin bed will need a twin-sized sheet, while a queen bed will need a king-sized sheet.

Twin Size Bed Sheet

If you have a twin bed, you will need a twin-sized microfiber bed sheets set. This sheet will fit the bottom and top of your bed, but it may be too small if you want to cover the entire mattress. If you want to buy a second sheet to cover the top of your bed, you will need to go up one size from your twin-sized sheet. For example, if you are buying a queen-sized sheet, you will need a king-sized sheet.

Queen Bed Sheet Size

If you have a queen bed, you will need a queen-sized microfiber bed sheets set. This sheet will fit the bottom and top of your bed, and it may be too small if you want to cover the entire mattress. If you want to buy a second sheet to cover the top of your bed, you will need to go up one size from your queen-sized sheet. For example, if you are buying a king-sized sheet, you will need an emperor-sized sheet.

King Bed Sheet Size

If you have a king bed, you will need a king size bed sheet set. This sheet will fit the bottom and top of your bed, and it may be too small if you want to cover the entire mattress. If you want to buy a second sheet to cover the top of your bed, you will need to go up one size from your king-sized sheet. For example, if you are buying an emperor-sized sheet, you will need a massive-sized sheet.

Full Bed Sheet

If you have a full bed, you will need a full-size sheet. This sheet will fit the bottom and top of your bed, and it may be too small if you want to cover the entire mattress. If you want to buy a second sheet to cover the top of your bed, you will need to go up one size from your full-sized sheet. For example, if you are buying a massive-sized sheet, you will need an enormous-sized sheet.

California King Bed Sheets

If you have a California king bed, you will need a king-sized sheet that is also oversized for a California king bed. This sheet will fit the bottom and top of your bed, but it may be too large if you want to cover the entire mattress. If you want to buy a second sheet to cover the top of your bed, you will need to go up two sizes from your king-sized sheet. For example, if you are buying an enormous-sized sheet, you will need a monstrous-sized sheet.

If you’re not sure what size sheet to get, measure your mattress and use those measurements to find the correct size of sheet. However, if you want to take advantage of fitted sheets, it’s best to buy two sizes smaller than your actual mattress size. That way, you can fit both standard and fitted sheets without having to worry about them coming off or bunching up during sleep.

When it comes to material, there are three main types of bed sheets: cotton, polyester, and microfiber.

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Which Type of Sheets is Best for You?

There are pros and cons to both types of sheets, so it’s important to choose the best one for your needs. Here’s a look at the differences between microfiber bed sheets and cotton sheets:

Microfiber Sheets Are Better for Sensitive Skin

Microfiber bed sheets are made from a fabric that is finer than cotton, which makes them better for people with sensitive skin. The fabric traps less moisture and oil, which can cause skin irritation.

Cotton Sheets Are Better for Airflow

Cotton sheets are better at keeping you cool in summer and warm in winter because they allow air to circulate. This means you won’t get hot or sweaty during sleep.

Microfiber Sheets Are Easier to Clean Than Cotton Sheets

Cotton sheets need to be washed often because dirt and dust build up over time. Microfiber bed sheets don’t need to be cleaned as often because they are less absorbent. However, if they get wet, they will require cleaning.

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How to Choose the Right Size Bed Sheet?

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the right size bed sheet will depend on a number of factors, including the size and shape of your bed and the amount of moisture your body produces. However, here are some tips on how to choose the right size bed sheet:

Start by measuring your bed mattress and sleeping area. Use this information to determine the size of bed sheet you will need. For example, if your bed is standard size and your sleeping area is queen-sized, you would need a king-sized bed sheet.

If you have a California King Bed or larger, factor in the extra length. A regular king-sized sheet will not cover the entire length of a California King Bed.

In addition to measuring your bed frame and mattress, take into account other bedding such as blankets, comforters, shams and pillows when selecting your sheet size. This will help ensure that your sheet fits snugly and doesn’t move around while you sleep.

Finally, be sure to wash your new sheets regularly in hot water with detergent to remove any body oils or sweat. This will keep your sheets looking their best and avoid any pilling or other wear and tear.


There are a lot of different types of bed sheets on the market today, and it can be hard to decide which type is right for you. Do you want a sheet that is soft and comfortable? One that will keep you cool during the summer? Or maybe one that will keep your mattress dry in case of an early morning leak? In this article, we compare cotton vs. microfiber bed sheets in order to help you make an informed decision about which type of sheet is best for you.

Source: Is Microfiber Bed Sheets Better Than Cotton Sheets?

What is JTAG?

JTAG is an integrated method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards (PCBs) that are implemented at the integrated circuit (IC) level.  Since its introduction as an industry standard in 1990, JTAG has continuously grown in adoption, popularity, and usefulness—even today, new revisions and supplements to the IEEE Std.-1149.1 standard are being developed and implemented. This document is a brief introduction to the nature and history of JTAG, from its introduction to new extensions in current development.

History of JTAG

In the 1980s, the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) set out to develop a specification for boundary-scan testing that was standardized in 1990 as the IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990. A few years later in 1993, a new revision to the standard—1149.1a—was introduced to clarify, correct, and enhance the original specification. An additional supplement, 1149.1b, was published in 1994 to add Boundary-Scan Description Language (BSDL) to the standard, paving the way for fast, automated test development and spurring continuous adoption by major electronics producers all over the world. The lessons that were learned became formalized in an update to the core standard in 2001 and IEEE-1149.1-2001 was published.

As new applications of JTAG were discovered, new standards were developed to extend the capabilities of JTAG. Standards such as the IEEE-1149.5 module test and maintenance bus standard in 1995 and the IEEE-1149.4 standard for mixed-signal testing in 1999 were met with low adoption rates and are not widely used at present. The IEEE-1149.6 standard introduced in 2003, on the other hand, began with slow adoption but has since become standard in many ICs as the technology it addressed—high-speed, AC-coupled signals—became a common feature of electronic systems. IEEE-1149.7, published in 2009 to address the need for JTAG in low-pin-count systems, is now standard on many popular microcontrollers.

JTAG Technology

JTAG is commonly referred to as boundary-scan and defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 1149.1, which originally began as an integrated method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards (PCBs) implemented at the integrated circuit (IC) level. As PCBs grew in complexity and density—a trend that continues today—limitations in the traditional test methods of in-circuit testers (ICTs) and bed of nails fixtures became evident. Packaging formats, specifically Ball Grid Array (BGA, depicted in Figure 1) and other fine pitch components, designed to meet ever-increasing physical space constraints, also led to a loss of physical access to signals.

These new technology developments led to dramatic increases in costs related to designing and building bed of nails fixtures; at the same time, circuit board test coverage also suffered. JTAG/boundary-scan presented an elegant solution to this problem: build functionality into the IC to assist in testing assembled electronic systems.

Today, JTAG is used for everything from testing interconnects and functionality on ICs to programming flash memory of systems deployed in the field and everything in-between. JTAG and its related standards have been and will continue to be extended to address additional challenges in electronic test and manufacturing, including test of 3D ICs and complex, hierarchical systems.

What is JTAG?

Additional standards have also been published to add specific test capabilities. In 2002, the IEEE-1532 standard for in-system configuration of programmable devices was released and is now a common feature of FPGAs and their supporting software systems. IEEE-1581 was developed in 2011 to provide a convenient method of testing interconnects of high-speed memories with slow-speed test vectors; a version of this capability is implemented in some DDR4 memory components. To address the new application of combined capacitive sensing and boundary-scan test, IEEE-1149.8.1 was published in 2012. The extensibility of JTAG has been proven time and again.

More recently, efforts have been made to standardize JTAG access to instruments embedded within ICs. The IEEE-1149.1 standard was updated once more in 2013 for some housekeeping and to add extensions to access these instruments. Just one year later, an alternative standard for accessing these instruments, IEEE-1687, was published. Looking to the future, industry activities to extend JTAG into 3D-IC testing, system-level testing, and high-speed testing are already underway, proving that the versatility and extensibility of JTAG is here to stay.

How Does JTAG Work?

The JTAG/boundary-scan test architecture was originally developed as a method to test interconnects between ICs mounted on a PCB without using physical test probes. Boundary-scan cells created using multiplexer and latch circuits are attached to each pin on the device. These cells, embedded in the device, can capture data from pin or core logic signals as well as force data onto pins. Captured data is serially shifted out through the JTAG Test Access Port (TAP) and can be compared to expected values to determine a pass or fail result. Forced test data is serially shifted into the boundary-scan cells. All of this is controlled from a serial data path called the scan path or scan chain.

Because each pin can be individually controlled, boundary-scan eliminates a large number of test vectors that would normally needed to properly initialize sequential logic. Using JTAG, tens or hundreds of test vectors may do the job that had previously required thousands. Boundary-scan enables shorter test times, higher test coverage, increased diagnostic capability, and lower capital equipment cost.

The principles of interconnect test using boundary-scan components are illustrated in Figure 3. Two boundary-scan compliant devices are connected with four nets. The first device includes four outputs that are driving the four inputs of the other with predefined values. In this case, we assume that the circuit includes two faults: a short fault between Net2 and Net3, and an open fault on Net4. We will also assume that a short between two nets behaves as a wired-AND and an open fault behaves as a stuck-at-1 condition.

To detect and isolate defects, the tester shifts the patterns shown in Figure 3 into the first boundary-scan register and applies these patterns to the inputs of the second device.

Of course, interconnect testing is just one of many uses of JTAG—the aforementioned JTAG TAP has been extended to support additional capabilities including in-system-programming (ISP), in-circuit-emulation (ICE), embedded functional testing, and many more. The standard accounts for the addition of device-specific instructions and registers that can be used to interact with additional IC capabilities. For example, a microprocessor device may have embedded functionality for data download, program execution, or register peek-and-poke activities accessible using JTAG TAP; using the same tools, FPGA and CPLD devices can be erased, configured, read-back, and controlled using JTAG instructions through the IEEE-1532 standard. More recently, embedded IC instrumentation—from instruments that measure voltage and current to devices that can execute high-speed test on the chip—has used the JTAG TAP as the access mechanism, providing new visibility into the IC and further expanding the scope of JTAG testing.The input values captured in the boundary-scan register of the second device are shifted out and compared to the expected values. In this case, the results, underlined and marked in red on Net2, Net3, and Net4, do not match the expected values and the tester tags these nets as faulty. Sophisticated algorithms are used to automatically generate the minimal set of test vectors to detect, isolate, and diagnose faults to specific nets, devices, and pins.

JTAG for Product Life-Cycle Phases and Applications

While JTAG/boundary-scan was originally regarded as a method to test electronic products during the production phase, new developments and applications of the IEEE-1149.1 standard have enabled the use of JTAG in many other product life cycle phases. Boundary-scan technology is commonly applied to product design, prototype debugging, and field service as depicted in Figure 4.

The same test suite used to validate design testability can adapted and utilized for board bring-up, high-volume manufacturing test, troubleshooting and repairs, and even field service and reprogramming. The versatility of JTAG/boundary-scan tools delivers immense value to organizations beyond the production phase.

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